NMDCAT / NUMS Models MCQs from Cell Biology

  Cell Biology 



1. Which organelle is known as the "powerhouse of the cell"?
   a) Nucleus
   b) Golgi apparatus
   c) Mitochondria
   d) Endoplasmic reticulum

2. Where is genetic material stored in a eukaryotic cell?
   a) Nucleus
   b) Ribosome
   c) Vacuole
   d) Chloroplast

3. Which organelle is responsible for protein synthesis in a cell?
   a) Ribosome
   b) Lysosome
   c) Peroxisome
   d) Golgi apparatus

4. What is the function of the Golgi apparatus in a cell?
   a) Protein synthesis
   b) Energy production
   c) Packaging and modifying proteins
   d) Waste elimination

5. Which organelle contains digestive enzymes for breaking down waste materials?

   a) Ribosome 
   b) Endoplasmic reticulum
   c) Lysosome
   d) Peroxisome

6. What is the main function of the endoplasmic reticulum?

   a) Lipid synthesis
   b) Protein synthesis
   c) Energy production
   d) Waste elimination

7. Which organelle is responsible for detoxifying harmful substances in the cell?
   a) Golgi apparatus
   b) Nucleus
   c) Peroxisome
   d) Vacuole

8. Where are ribosomes found in a cell?
   a) Free-floating in the cytoplasm and attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
   b) Inside the nucleus
   c) Within the lysosomes
   d) Inside the vacuole
9. What is the function of the cytoskeleton in a cell?
   a) Cell movement and support
   b) Protein synthesis
   c) Lipid synthesis
   d) DNA replication

10. Which organelle is responsible for maintaining cell shape and providing structural support?
    a) Nucleus
    b) Endoplasmic reticulum
    c) Golgi apparatus
    d) Cytoskeleton

11. Which organelle contains chlorophyll and is responsible for photosynthesis in plant cells?
    a) Mitochondria
    b) Chloroplast
    c) Ribosome
    d) Lysosome

12. What is the function of the vacuole in plant cells?
    a) Storage of water and nutrients
    b) Protein synthesis
    c) Energy production
    d) Cell movement

13. Which organelle is involved in the synthesis of lipids and steroids?
    a) Endoplasmic reticulum
    b) Ribosome
    c) Lysosome
    d) Peroxisome

14. What is the function of the cell membrane?
    a) Regulates the passage of substances into and out of the cell
    b) Stores genetic material
    c) Synthesizes proteins
    d) Produces energy

15. Where are mitochondria primarily found in animal cells?
    a) In the cytoplasm
    b) Inside the nucleus
    c) Attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
    d) Free-floating in the cytoplasm

16. What is the function of the nucleolus?
    a) Synthesizes ribosomal RNA
    b) Detoxifies harmful substances
    c) Packages proteins
    d) Stores genetic material

17. Which organelle contains enzymes for breaking down cellular waste and foreign materials?
    a) Ribosome
    b) Endoplasmic reticulum
    c) Golgi apparatus
    d) Lysosome

18. What is the primary function of the nucleus in a cell?
    a) Stores genetic material and controls cellular activities
    b) Synthesizes proteins
    c) Converts energy
    d) Breaks down waste materials

19. Which organelle is responsible for maintaining turgor pressure in plant cells?
    a) Mitochondria
    b) Chloroplast
    c) Vacuole
    d) Nucleus

20. What is the function of the cell wall in plant cells?
    a) Provides structural support and protection
    b) Regulates the passage of substances into and out of the cell
    c) Synthesizes proteins
    d) Converts energy

21. Where is the genetic material located in a prokaryotic cell?
    a) Nucleus
    b) Ribosome
    c) Cytoplasm
    d) Vacuole

22. Which organelle contains enzymes for breaking down fatty acids and detoxifying alcohol?
    a) Golgi apparatus
    b) Peroxisome
    c) Lysosome
    d) Endoplasmic reticulum

23. What is the function of the flagella in a cell?
    a) Cell movement
    b) Protein synthesis
    c) Energy production
    d) Waste elimination

24. Which organelle is responsible for maintaining cell turgidity and rigidity?
    a) Endoplasmic reticulum
    b) Golgi apparatus
    c) Vacuole
    d) Nucleus

25. Where is DNA located in a eukaryotic cell?
    a) Nucleus
    b) Cytoplasm
    c) Ribosome
    d) Endoplasmic reticulum

26. What is the function of cilia in a cell?

    a) Cell movement and sensory functions
    b) Protein synthesis
    c) Energy production
    d) Waste elimination

27. Which organelle is responsible for the synthesis of ribosomal RNA (rRNA)?
    a) Nucleus
    b) Ribosome
    c) Mitochondria
    d) Endoplasmic reticulum

28. What is the function of the peroxisome in a cell?
    a) Detoxifies harmful substances and breaks down fatty acids
    b) Synthesizes proteins
    c) Stores genetic material
    d) Converts energy

29. Where are lysosomes synthesized in a cell?
    a) Golgi apparatus
    b) Endoplasmic reticulum
    c) Nucleus
    d) Ribosome

30. What is the function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum?
    a) Synthesizes proteins
    b) Detoxifies harmful substances
    c) Stores genetic material
    d) Breaks down waste materials

31. Which organelle contains enzymes for photosynthesis in plant cells?
    a) Ribosome
    b) Chloroplast
    c) Lysosome
    d) Peroxisome

32. What is the primary function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
    a) Synthesizes lipids and steroids
    b) Synthesizes proteins
    c) Stores genetic material
    d) Converts energy

33. Where is RNA synthesized in a eukaryotic cell?
    a) Nucleus
    b) Ribosome
    c) Golgi apparatus
    d) Vacuole

34. What is the function of the nuclear envelope?
    a) Regulates the passage of substances into and out of the nucleus
    b) Synthesizes proteins
    c) Converts energy
    d) Detoxifies harmful substances

35. Which organelle is responsible for cell division in animal cells?
    a) Golgi apparatus
    b) Nucleus
    c) Mitochondria
    d) Centriole

36. What is the function of the centrioles in animal cells?
    a) Organize microtubules during cell division
    b) Synthesize proteins
    c) Store genetic material
    d) Detoxify harmful substances

37. Where are microtubules found in a cell?
    a) Cytoskeleton
    b) Golgi apparatus
    c) Lysosome
    d) Nucleus

38. What is the function of the nuclear pores?
    a) Regulate the passage of substances into and out of the nucleus
    b) Synthesize proteins
    c) Store genetic material
    d) Convert energy

39. Which organelle is responsible for detoxifying drugs and alcohol in liver cells?
    a) Golgi apparatus
    b) Lysosome
    c) Peroxisome
    d) Ribosome

40. Where are microfilaments found in a cell?
    a) Cytoskeleton
    b) Golgi apparatus
    c) Lysosome
    d) Nucleus

41. What is the function of the nuclear matrix?
    a) Supports the shape of the nucleus and            regulates gene expression
    b) Synthesizes proteins
    c) Stores genetic material
    d) Detoxifies harmful substances

42. Which organelle is responsible for maintaining cell shape and movement in protists?
    a) Mitochondria
    b) Chloroplast
    c) Flagella
    d) Cilia

43. What is the function of the contractile vacuole in protists?
    a) Regulates water balance
    b) Synthesizes proteins
    c) Converts energy
    d) Stores genetic material

44. Where are spindle fibers found in a cell during cell division?
    a) Between centrioles
    b) Inside the Golgi apparatus
    c) Attached to the cell membrane
    d) Inside the lysosomes

45. What is the function of the extracellular matrix in animal cells?
    a) Provides structural support and facilitates cell communication
    b) Synthesizes proteins
    c) Converts energy
    d) Stores genetic material

46. Which organelle is responsible for synthesizing and modifying carbohydrates?
    a) Golgi apparatus
    b) Lysosome
    c) Peroxisome
    d) Ribosome

47. What is the function of the tight junctions in animal cells?
    a) Prevents leakage of fluid between cells
    b) Synthesizes proteins
    c) Converts energy
    d) Stores genetic material

48. Where are gap junctions found in animal cells?
    a) Allow communication and exchange of          ions and small molecules between                    adjacent cells
    b) Inside the mitochondria
    c) Synthesize proteins
    d) Store genetic material

49. What is the function of the plasmodesmata in plant cells?
    a) Facilitate communication and exchange          of materials between adjacent plant                cells
    b) Store genetic material
    c) Convert energy
    d) Synthesize proteins

50. Which organelle is responsible for maintaining cell-cell communication in animal cells?
    a) Gap junctions
    b) Plasmodesmata
    c) Tight junctions
    d) Nuclear pores



Correct Answers:

1. c) Mitochondria
2. a) Nucleus
3. a) Ribosome
4. c) Packaging and modifying proteins
5. c) Lysosome
6. a) Lipid synthesis
7. c) Peroxisome
8. a) Free-floating in the cytoplasm and attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
9. a) Cell movement and support
10. d) Cytoskeleton
11. b) Chloroplast
12. a) Storage of water and nutrients
13. a) Endoplasmic reticulum
14. a) Regulates the passage of substances into and out of the cell
15. a) In the cytoplasm
16. a) Synthesizes ribosomal RNA
17. d) Lysosome
18. a) Stores genetic material and controls cellular activities
19. c) Vacuole
20. a) Provides structural support and protection
21. c) Cytoplasm
22. b) Peroxisome
23. a) Cell movement
24. c) Vacuole
25. a) Nucleus
26. a) Cell movement and sensory functions
27. a) Nucleus
28. a) Detoxifies harmful substances and breaks down fatty acids
29. a) Golgi apparatus
30. a) Synthesizes proteins
31. b) Chloroplast
32. a) Synthesizes lipids and steroids
33. a) Nucleus
34. a) Regulates the passage of substances into and out of the nucleus
35. d) Centriole
36. a) Organize microtubules during cell division
37. a) Cytoskeleton
38. a) Regulate the passage of substances into and out of the nucleus
39. c) Peroxisome
40. a) Cytoskeleton
41. a) Supports the shape of the nucleus and regulates gene expression
42. c) Flagella
43. a) Regulates water balance
44. a) Between centrioles
45. a) Provides structural support and facilitates cell communication
46. a) Golgi apparatus
47. a) Prevents leakage of fluid between cells
48. a) Allow communication and exchange of ions and small molecules between adjacent cells
49. a) Facilitate communication and exchange of materials between adjacent plant cells
50. a) Gap junctions

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